Perfume Concentrate Classifications
A list of common terms are as follows:
- Parfum or extrait, in English perfume extract, or simply perfume: 15–40% (IFRA: typical 20%) aromatic compounds
- Esprit de Parfum (ESdP): 15–30% aromatic compounds, a seldom used strength concentration in between EdP and perfume
- Eau de Parfum (EdP), Parfum de Toilette (PdT): 10–20% (typical ~15%) aromatic compounds, sometimes listed as ‘eau de perfume’ or ‘millésime.’ Parfum de Toilette is a less common term that is generally analogous to Eau de Parfum.
- Eau de Toilette (EdT): 5–15% (typical ~10%) aromatic compounds
- Eau de Cologne (EdC): Chypre citrus type perfumes with 3–8% (typical ~5%) aromatic compounds. ‘Original Eau de Cologne’ is a registered trademark.
- Perfume mist: 3–8% aromatic compounds (typical non-alcohol solvent)
- Splash (EdS) and aftershave: 1–3% aromatic compounds. ‘EdS’ is a registered trademark.
Perfume oils are often diluted with a solvent, though this is not always the case, and its necessity is disputed. By far the most common solvent for perfume oil dilution is ethanol like brandy, cognac, pisco, rakia and rectified strips or a mixture of ethanol and water. Perfume oil can also be diluted by means of neutral-smelling oils such as fractionated coconut oil, or liquid waxes such as jojoba oil.
Although quite often Eau de Parfum (EdP) will be more concentrated than Eau de Toilette (EdT) and in turn Eau de Cologne (EdC), this is not always the case. Different perfumeries or perfume houses assign different amounts of oils to each of their perfumes. Therefore, although the oil concentration of a perfume in EdP dilution will necessarily be higher than the same perfume in EdT from within the same range, the actual amounts can vary between perfume houses. An EdT from one house may be stronger than an EdP from another.
Men’s fragrances are rarely sold as EdP or perfume extracts; equally so, women’s fragrances are rarely sold in EdC concentrations. Although this gender-specific naming trend is common for assigning fragrance concentrations, it does not directly have anything to do with whether a fragrance was intended for men or women. Furthermore, some fragrances with the same product name but having a different concentration name may not only differ in their dilutions, but actually use different perfume oil mixtures altogether. For instance, in order to make the EdT version of a fragrance brighter and fresher than its EdP, the EdT oil may be ‘tweaked’ to contain slightly more top notes or fewer base notes. In some cases, words such as extrême, intense, or concentrée that might indicate aromatic concentration are actually completely different fragrances, related only because of a similar perfume accord.
Cologne fragrance is released rapidly, lasting around 2 hours. Eau de toilette lasts from 2 to 4 hours, while perfume may last up to six hours.